Linking Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy on Media and Instructional Technology

uChurches (2007)’s intellectual and timely revision of Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy is a consequence of evolving varied areas of instructions dictated by fast changing times. This contemporary taxonomy pursues to elevate the order thinking skills that every learner should acquire. With the proliferation of emerging technology and media intervening with pedagogy, changes are yielded paving educators’ innovative perceptions to flourish. These variations enabled the alliance of media and technological tools in pedagogy to form common goals for the viability of knowledge absorption. Because of these two factors’ inseparable interconnections, technological fruition is media proliferation; both are adopted as teaching tool-kits. As a favorable result, traditional learning is systematically being replaced by 21st century methods and strategies in formal and non-formal classrooms as a manifestation of advocacy among educators worldwide.

Benjamin S. Bloom’s (1956) Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain which classifies the order of thinking skills from lower order thinking skills (LOTS) to higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has been earlier refurbished to situate the current learning environment of learners. Formerly, its order was knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. In the 1990’s, L. Anderson, D. Krathwohl, P. Airasian, K. Cruikshank, R. Mayer, P. Pintrich, J. Raths and M. Wittrock conducted a study on its sustainability and came up with some alterations of the original hierarchy of thinking skills. The proponents’ groundbreaking and transitional moves were later published in 2001 thereby exposing the taxonomy of cognitive domain to comprise series of verbs instead of the former nouns that were initially utilized. Words such as remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating replaced the terminologies of the order thinking skills. Moreover, the new taxonomy has evaluating replacing synthesis from the old taxonomy with the addition of creating as the highest order thinking skills.

While, the 21st century emerges with technological modifications alongside with the disclosure of mass media forms, Churches further reviewed the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy and created subcategories of digital skills delineating Digital Taxonomy in order to synchronized the intrusion of technologies and media in facilitating 21st century instructions for outcome-based education (OBE).

To realize these modern changes, the Digital Taxonomy as a contemporary taxonomy of the cognitive domain began focusing on situating learning in an environment that manipulates technological tools for the enhancement of teaching and learning processes. In here, Churches reformed the LOTS and the HOTS by adding digital verbs to the previously recognized verbs to that of Bloom’s original taxonomy through the creation of sub categories found in each ascending order thinking skills.

Consequently, the thinking skills contain combinations of previously recognized and digital verbs use for the development of the hierarchy. A few of these thinking skills’ examples are found in every classification of the newly formulated order thinking skills alongside digital activities to explain the core of Digital Taxonomy. Initially, Remembering means the employment of a learner’s memory to create meanings, state facts, list, and state or recover materials or its sources. It includes, googling, labeling bookmarking, bullet-pointing, listing, matching, naming among others. To elucidate this through a digital activity, a student Googles the YouTube to search a video of a solar system. He further bookmarks the URL to remember the source of his learning material, when he needs the video, he Googles for easy access of the site. He operates his thinking skills by doing these technologically- related tasks. Secondly, Understanding refers to the productions of meanings from different kinds of uses. These implications maybe expressed in written forms or in diagrammatic ways. Subscribing, tagging, tweeting, sharing, commenting, comparing, contrasting, discussing, discovering, expressing, and explaining and many more. As an example, one tags a picture from the Internet source that he may have subscribed or accessed to appear on his Facebook. He comments to express his thoughts for his friends to read. He can share what he has tagged. The processes like subscribing to an online international journal, subscribing to job advertisement site, signing up to emails, availing messenger are some forms of digital understanding. Additionally, Applying is utilizing learned resources through recreations, reproductions, performances among others. Editing, uploading, painting interviewing, choosing, collecting, carrying-out, dramatizing, transforming; for instance, uploading a resume to an email or a website to apply for a job or a research student may wish to upload his research papers in an international journal for further editing before it is accepted for publication. Editing of a script before submission, picture painting using the Paint application, shortening a film through editing, putting captions on films, pictures and posters. Furthermore, Analyzing is tantamount to splitting the materials into smaller parts to understand the relationships of these parts to the whole. Advertising, appraising, categorizing, dissecting, calculating, deducing, elucidating, differentiating and outlining. To illustrate, after a researcher gathers his bibliographic sources, he classifies each source according to subject areas, topics or the types of sources. A student may have watched a film and by structuring the elements of the films, he creates an outline as his approach to write a film review or a student watches a film version of the Tales of Two Cities by Charles Dickens and breaks the story into sequence of events. With the use of a timeline, one can relate the important dates and events that comprise the whole story. The events alluded to history can even be further researched over the Websites applying more interwoven thinking skills apart from merely analyzing. Moreover, Evaluating denotes assessment/measurement based from accepted formulated principles. Revising, commenting, concluding, convincing, judging, assessing, justifying, validating, and reviewing. To exemplify, a student revises his research papers’ documentations after noticing some errors in the bibliographic entries. To resolve the problem, he follows the guidelines of documenting sources from the American Psychological Association (APA). Mass communication students made a music video. Upon watching their project for the first time, they noticed that the voice of the performers do not synchronize with their actions onscreen. They also noticed that there are distortions in the musical scoring. The group revised what they have initially made. Finally, Creating represents the assembling of the related elements together to form the whole or production. It includes blogging, building, animating, developing, devising, integrating and inventing. To typify, a student mixes a musical background to a short film project with the integration of subtitles for audience to fully understand. At the beginning and ending of his video project, he builds opening or closing credits by creatively embedding animations in varied movements. Aside from a short film, there can be many digital activities that one can produce such as a voice over for a school video, blogging interesting articles on websites, creation of cartoon animation, PowerPoint presentation with the integration of text, video, effects and transitions; extracting scenes from long films and remixing two films together and so on.

One concrete example that generally elucidates the interconnections of the Digital Taxonomy’s order thinking skills is the varied E-learning systems that introduces great deal of collaboration. To be specific, the Blackboard enhances the digital thinking skills of the students as they approach the processes in performing the tasks assigned by the teacher. Some of these significant procedures manifest the inter-linkages of the order thinking skills such as opening the computer, surfing the Blackboard site, opening their Blackboard account when logging in, reading the Blackboard menu before proceeding to the next step, searching for the files in audio and in visual forms, recognizing the color codes the teacher has used to classify the nature of the file, connecting to URL where the lessons are connected from the websites, downloading the files to obtain personal copies, answering varied types of test uploaded, construction of projects files such as video and PowerPoint presentation and uploading these project files, checking marks as results of their performance, printing a copy of the files, saving the files in external disc to obtain personal copies, creating audio – visual projects and uploading them for their instructors to check, bookmarking the URL for easy access and connecting the computer to a projector when reporting is required in the class, among other tasks that determine the level of their thinking skills. In other words, the Blackboard LMS yield multiple interconnecting thinking skills from Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy yielding remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating.

As technologies globally deliver other inventions capable for instructions, media will constantly be the substantial partners in the evolution of learning. As evidently observed, innovative educators can’t help but advocate through these tools’ incorporation to facilitate learning in all areas of disciplines in the academe. The status of education today will be a prelude of further development depending on what technologies offer for the future generations. The meantime as far as they currently exist, they define what digital taxonomy is for the progress of the 21st century learners.

The Digital Taxonomy as a contemporary taxonomy of the cognitive domain began focusing on situating learning in an environment that manipulates technological tools for the augmentation of teaching and learning processes. In here, the teacher utilizes authentic materials that are within the learners’ surroundings which do not only drive their curiosity and interest but allow them to absorb knowledge of the contents as well as increase their modern day abilities in manipulating the forms of technologies as demanded globally by the breakthroughs of the modern times. This article also reveals that Churches made some favorable transformations of learners’ thinking levels by the addition of digital verbs to the originally identified verbs from that of Bloom’s initial taxonomy published in 1956. In here, Churches created sublevels containing action words that learners should render in the performance of the learning tasks for the enhancement of their reasoning aptitudes. While learners operate technologies, they activate media forms. Thus, Engagement of these two components facilitates learning while their reasoning are boosted into higher stages.


Advancing Your Career By Enrolling In Massage Courses

download (60)If you are building a career in massage therapy today, it is very much recommended that you advance by enrolling in the best massage courses offered in your area. These courses, especially if taken under a school that is recognised and known worldwide, will be sure to provide you with the skills and qualifications you need to excel in the current highly competitive job market.

Enroling in a massage course provides students with a lot of advantages. First, you will get recognition in the global job market. A diploma from a prestigious school is recognised in more than 35 countries worldwide. You will also get access to multiple industries. An ordinary massage course often allows you to work at beauty spas and health centres. But possessing a diploma allows you to seek employment in a wider range of sectors and more lucrative professional environments, from five-star hotels and resorts, luxury cruise liners, exclusive sports clubs, private clients, celebrities and more.

Additionally, you will get formal qualifications. These high level reflexology courses are backed up by a proven framework that provides the student with a clear and organised system of attaining credits and qualifications that will be helpful in advancing a career and further education. You will then have a lot of career opportunities. Due to the recognition and proven quality education provided by this framework as well as the organisation’s established links with leading employers in the world, graduates often command higher salaries and more lucrative employment opportunities than graduates of ordinary massage and reflexology courses.

The framework of this level course likewise supports students who are interested not in seeking employment but in building a business of their own. The courses beyond education about the subject matter – they also equip students with knowledge of the industry, the global market and analytic and decision-making skills related to their field, which are all useful should the student choose to pursue an entrepreneurial path. To truly maximise the benefits, it pays to enrol in a school that boasts of having educators with an outstanding reputation and knowledge of the framework.

A smart investment is to choose a natural therapy school that has tutors with years of qualifications up their sleeve. Guidance and mentorship from an experienced teacher allow you to also hone your skills under her specialisations such as in reflexology, neuroskeletal realignment, massage, aromatherapy and Indian head massage, arming you with the tools and attitude you need to advance your career in massage therapy


Join ICSE Coaching Classes To Improve Your Career Prospect

download (59)Today, worldwide companies need proactive, smart, and intelligent students who can solve the problems easily and creatively while improving the standards of living. Global leading businesses always look for the talent that can help their organization to grow seamless in order to dominate their niche while developing new elements to stay long in the market. They want to establish their brand by listening to the customers and resolving their critical problems. Students also try their level best to achieve success in their career and get position in good companies where they can exhibit their core talent and skills.

Students outpace their competitors

In pursuit of the same, students work hard and smart to outpace their competitors and clear the toughest exams. They not only understand their subject deeply, but also analyze the concepts, which can bring dramatic changes. They clear their schools along with the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) too to refine their knowledge as well as skills. ICSE is the most popular examination, which is conducted by CISCE (Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations), a private, non-governmental board of school education in India. ICSE is highly recognized across the globe because of its in-depth course structure, which is quite similar to many international curriculum.

Students prepare hard to outwork other students

Students try to crack it by preparing hard and outwork other students. They focus on the specific subjects, which are quite hard to understand. However, most of the students choose ICSE coaching classes in order to prepare well and stay ahead in the competition.

Coaching classes are highly beneficial

These coaching classes are highly beneficial for the students who want to strengthen their weak subjects and want to have ultimate grip as well as understanding on them. These coaching classes help students to apply their knowledge and thinking to solve a specific problem (in mathematics & science) in a simplified way.

Classes aim to understand the weak points

These classes aim to understand the weak points of the students and prepare them for the world-class examinations (such as ICSE) so that they can illuminate their career while achieving great success in their field. These classes have highly educated teachers who are committed to provide the best possible educational facilities to the students for careers in different branches from technology to science. They also provide an engaging, innovative and creative atmosphere in which higher studies thrive among the students.


Moreover, they also provide the best techniques to face and crack such exams that demands high level of intelligence, presence of mind as well as determination. So if you are preparing for your ICSE exam and to excel in your career, then just join ICSE coaching class and feel the real difference.

Direction Classes provides quality education for IGCSE, IBDP, MYP, AS & A level, ICSE, CBSE, SSC & HSC Curriculum.


The Positive Side Of Life After An Exam Failure

download (58)The time of the year has come, when results have been announced. The media is ripe with stories and work schedule of toppers and all the successful students who have achieved high marks in the examinations. The top marks, no doubt, are the result of all the hard work done by students and the support extended by the teachers and their family members. If you are among the toppers, congratulations! We are glad – but if you are not, and are among the type of students who have not made it past the passing marks, and you are struggling externally and internally, became depressed because of the taunts by families and friends, then, this article is for you.

First, kindly take into account, that you are not the only one who is in the boat and not everything in life is lost. But you have not been able to do the right part and because of improper guidance, have selected the negative factors. You have isolated yourself from friends and family and become a recluse. You also have given up on everything and always waste time on naps.

There are many students who have opted for this route, but their families were wise enough to seek the guidance of a counselor. Talking to a new person who wants to help you can open the flood gates of depression and bring about positive changes. You can get time and knowledge to reflect on the causes that led to the failure.

The counselors, as well as the family can give you various options, and you will get confidence to perform more than your capability.

The main reason why many of us fear failure, is that it is pitched against our most wanted aspect – success. However, when examined, only a thin line separates the two. Both failure and success are nothing but illusions in life. They are merely blocks of our life of what we want to achieve, and success is only a method to show the path to a happy life. If you look at the opposite, failure has to be hailed upon as an important sign. It informs you that the path you have followed is not perfect and we need to change courses.

We have heard students answering the teacher’s questions for ‘What do you want to become when you grow up?’

Many of the answers will be the normal way, but there can also be ones, which will knock the daylights out of the teacher. One such reply was ‘I want to become famous.’ When the teacher prodded the pupil as to how, the answer received was ‘I do not know, but by any means. But famous.’

Looking at the above answer, you can associate that fame has been associated with success in the younger generation.

Failure in an exam does not mean that you are a loser. You may be termed a failure only when you give in, with the assumption that you have failed. There are many who after failure in an exam, resign to their fate and hover thoughts about luck and family problems etc. An honest opinion from a knowledgeable person can term ‘failure’ as good, humble and kind teacher but only if you can understand.

Somewhere, teachers are also to be blamed. For their appraisals, they make classroom stars, promote competition and create barriers within themselves regarding the potential of a student. Other than completing the curriculum, the teachers should also possess the ability to view the situation of a candidate. Each situation will be different, and handling them as per the requirement will open multiple solutions for all students.

How To Deal With Failure

The best way is to accept the challenge is as it is. If you are putting the blame on other person’s behavior, then you are taking a wrong turn. Having violent confrontations at home can lead to frustrations. When you are frustrated, withdraw from the situation and put the reasons on a piece of paper. Is it the wrong choice or lack of motivation, to do a particular action that interfered with your learning capabilities or you were not able to do a specified task?

Writing challenges and noting points can open up new avenues and you can reach out to your friends, family members or counselors who can assist you with these parameters.

For the last but before sentence, kindly note, failure and success are just a way to show us the way to play our role in the universe.

Going through pain because of failure is not easy, agreed. But, when you face one, you emerge stronger. You should always be a warrior and you have to challenge yourself. Success and failures are just moving stages in your life regardless of all situations.

Vana Sathya Sree is interested in writing articles on health, pets, history, martial arts, traveling, technology etc.


Questions You Should Ask Before Joining a Driving School

download (53)When you are taking the first steps into driving, the role of instructors plays a huge role. Just like in schools and colleges, the students need to like their teacher, and the teacher themselves should have the necessary qualities to deal with different types of students. There has to be proper coordination between them. For instance, if a student tends to get nervous often, they might not do so well under instructors who have a short temper or are impatient.

Individuals who are looking to learn to drive need to be aware of certain factors; factors which might look insignificant but are extremely important. These factors include the number of lessons you need to take because the cost of the course will directly depend on the number of classes you take.

How long will the theory class go on?

Some people might have the idea that in these sorts of training, theoretical knowledge is not so important, but it’s a wrong assumption. Theoretical knowledge is just as important as practical know-how. But you should make sure that there is an equal balance between the two. Too much theory can ruin the practical experience which matters the most.

How long does each class last?

Here you have to be extremely careful because if you don’t the instructors can easily cut out the duration of the classes to make more money. So, when you are comparing prices of this kind of training you need to be watchful about the duration of the classes. But make sure you don’t overdo things. More often than not people get excited and book a class for 3-4 hours but after 1-2 hours they lose their concentration. So the remaining period of the class is a complete waste of time and money.

Where do these classes start?

Most people prefer to take classes in an area where there is no traffic due to the fear of accidents. Certain mishaps are bound to happen where you are doing it for the first time which is why taking the classes on the highway or places where there is massive traffic is not a good idea.

Will the routes change?

Ask the trainer whether they will take you through the same route every day or different ones every day. Things can get a bit monotonous if the same routes are taken every day which is why you should insist that different routes are taken in each class.

Are all kinds of driving incorporated?

Taking these kinds of classes in a city is a lot different than doing it in rural areas which is why the classes should touch students all kinds of forms for their convenience.


Civil Exam Preparation Tips

download (57)The Internet facility has made it easier for many people, preparing for the exams and achieve their respective career goals. Be it any career, you definitely need to study and prepare for it with complete dedication. You have to take your goals seriously and remember them in every phase.

As the competitive exams are not easy to crack, you have to be very much serious about them. You really need to tackle everyday stress and take your studies along with it. The article gives a few tips to start preparing for civil exams and get success.

Use the online portals

Gone are the days when you had to be dependent on physical books only, to gather knowledge and know about different things. The presence of the internet has changed the entire picture. Whatever is new is there on the Google first. So, why to waste time in waiting for the printed books and then go on with the things. It will be late, which is not something good for a civil service aspirant. So, if you are preparing for civil exams like IAS or IPS make sure you are using the available online portals completely. These have actually made the preparation plans easy. You can get everything you want in a single click which means you need not waste hours in flipping the pages of the textbooks.

Manage your Timings

Another important thing that needs to be managed is the time. Since the syllabus is too vast, you shall divide the hours to devote per day on every subject and thus go on with the preparation. This way you will be able to finish your syllabus in time, which will, in turn, give you a fair opportunity to revise the things.

Be confident

Confidence is the most important thing if you want to do something great in your life. When you possess this attribute, actually half of the goal is achieved. Though there will be anxiety as it is a civil service test, but you have to believe that it’s not compulsory to know about everything under the sun. Just make sure that whatever you know, you use that knowledge to the fullest because, civil exams are about presenting your knowledge in a smart way.

Eventually, there will be many things around you which will distract you from concentrating on your studies. So, you just need to stick to your goal and stay dedicated to it. Just a little strategy while preparing for the exams will give you the fruit of your labor.


Tips to Choose the Right Optional Subject for MAINS UPSC Examination

download (56)Lakhs of aspirants appear in the prestigious UPSC civil service examinations every year. And, the most crucial stage comes when they have to choose the optional subject for MAINS examination. In fact, your whole life depends on this choice, so it is really important to take the right decision.

According to the new pattern of the UPSC, you have to choose only one optional subject, carrying 500 marks. Since students from every background are allowed to appear in the examination, UPSC offers a wide array of optional subjects according to the interests and the academic background of the candidate. So, here are some useful tips that can help you choose the right subject for MAINS examination.

Go through the Subject List Carefully

The foremost thing that you have to consider before choosing the optional is to go through the list of the subjects properly. Read the name of the subjects again and again for around 15-20 minutes. After that, analyze your interests and the knowledge level in the particular subjects. Think of your school days and make out in which subject you excelled and got better marks. Practicing this whole thing will help you make further decisions regarding the subject choice clearly.

Try Choosing the Subjects you are familiar with

Now that you have a fair idea of the subjects offered, think of the subjects you are familiar with. As you already have the basic knowledge of the subject it will be easier for you to study the things in detail without wasting much time.

Shortlist a few chosen subjects

By now, you considered the interest of your school days, but what matters most is the present. Analyze the subjects you are interested in today, which areas catch your maximum interest and will help you study enthusiastically. Doing all this will help you shortlist the right subjects and then reach the final conclusion.

Easy Availability of the Books and the Study Material

If you are thinking of choosing the subject not having ready material or the books in the market, it can turn to be a challenging thing for you as you waste a lot of time in researching and making the notes for it. So, go for the subject that is easily available in the market. Doing so, will actually save you a lot of time and will help you finish the syllabus on time.

Value your interest than the mark trends

Candidates often make the wrong choices considering the mark trends of the UPSC examination. Since the nature of the exam is conceptual and not factual, it is important that you have an interest in the subjects and you can show dedication towards it. It will be your dedication and interest in the subject that will help you develop the concepts and write the answers appropriately. So, make sure you are choosing the subject you are interested in and not because there are chances of getting higher marks in any particular subject.


Strategies to Prepare for Competitive Examination

download (74)Proper guidance is definitely the key to success. And, when it’s about the competitive examination, everything needs to be perfect. In fact, an aspirant does all he can, to crack the civil exams. Here are a few simple strategies that you shall adopt in order to get success in the examination.

Choose the Right Coaching Classes
The foremost thing is picking out the right coaching center. Since there are a number of coaching institutes, it is really difficult to make out which one is the best. So, before making the final decision, consider their reputation, know about the faculty, observe the atmosphere of the academy, check out the previous results, etc.

Regular Classes
In a coaching institute, there are regular classes which help understand the syllabus and complete it on time. And with this regular practice, you get a firm grip on the subject which develops the habit of answering smartly in the examination.

Break up the Time Wisely
Since the syllabus of the exam is vast, you need to plan your studies accordingly. It demands proper time. So, divide the syllabus and then divide the time to be paid to every subject. This habit will actually help you finish the things on time and you will also have the bandwidth to revise the things near the exams.

Set a Target
Setting up a target will help you achieve the goals easily. Simply set a target that you have to finish the entire syllabus by this date. And, once you are done with the syllabus, start revising the things. Appear in the mock tests, practice previous year papers and revise the syllabus on a regular basis. It actually helps you evaluate how prepared you are for the exam.

Stay Updated about the Changes
As the competitive exams are not static in nature, it is essential to stay updated with all the changes. There can be updates related to the syllabus, pattern, etc. So, being in regular touch with the official websites is important to avoid any regrets.

Go through the News and the Current Affairs
Although there is a set pattern of the competitive examinations, it does not mean that you will read the suggested or the preferred stuff only. You shall read new books, the prominent news, the latest events, happenings, etc. to score well in the examination.

Because there is every chance of getting an unexpected question in the exam, you shall have enough knowledge of the subject to answer it smartly.


6 Tips That Can Help You to Collect Coins

download (73)Coin collection sounds easy but it is obviously not as easy as it sounds. There are a lot of conditions that need to be assessed while collecting coins, a lot of steps to be followed and a handful of tips to be adhered tips. All these tips can enable you to make the most out of your wonderful hobby and there is no stopping you. Thus a few important tips that can help you in this situation have been explained as below.

1. Never assume

A common mistake that most coin collectors make is that they simply assume. For example, they assume that if that coin is old, it means that it might be damaged. The truth is that these old coins are worth more than the new ones because of their antique factor. This is because as the coin’s age increases, its value also increases dramatically.

2. A coin holder

A coin holder can help you a lot as far as holding of coins is concerned. It can enable you to safely store your coins and keep them in a better condition. These holders are also cheap and you can buy them anywhere.

3. Decide what you want to collect

There are many types of coins which means that a decision has to be made as to what types of coins you have to collect. For example, you can collect foreign coins and coins of either small denomination or large denominations. You can also collect old gold coins or old silver coins as the silver’s value can increase from time to time.

4. Visit coin expos

An expo that is solely dedicated to coins can help you a lot in learning more about them. This means that you can expand your knowledge and utilize this knowledge in the near future as well. An expo can help you immensely in the long run as you will gain a tremendous amount of information and knowledge.

5. Buy coins for enjoying not to get rich

You don’t necessarily have to become rich by buying coins. You can buy simply to enjoy the collection process and nothing else. These are most often good investments and the time you spend on collection can go a long way.

6. Buy the book before buying a coin

Buy a book on coin collection before you actually buy the coins. This can help you to learn a lot and there will not be any loss.


Transportation Services and Modes of Transport

download (72)In human evolution, the earliest means of transport were walking, running and swimming. Before the Industrial Revolution and modernization, water transport was the most efficient method of transporting large quantities of goods over long distances though it was very slow and expensive. The importance of water transport led to the growth of cities along rivers and sea-shores where boats, canoes and ships could dock.

The domestication of animals and the invention of the sled gave way to early animal transport services. Horses and oxen were used from as early as 3000 BC to transport goods and humans and traveled over dirt tracks. Later civilizations such as the Mesopotamian and the Indus Valley built paved roads for easier transport.

The Industrial Revolution of the 19th century turned transportation on its head. It was the age of many inventions that fundamentally changed the concept of transport. Communication, telegraphy, the steam engine and the steam ship sped global transport in all directions. Land transport became possible over large distances without the application of animal or human muscles. The Wright brothers’ successful experiments with aircraft paved the way for airplanes and air transport became a faster way to transport goods and people in shorter time-frames to further destinations.

Modes of transport

A ‘mode of transport’ is a method or solution that uses a particular type of infrastructure, operation and vehicle to transport people and cargo. A mode can be used by itself or in conjunction with several other modes; in this case it is referred to ‘intermodal’ or ‘multimodal’ transport. Each is distinct from the other and is used based on choice of factors like cost of transport, route taken, capability and so on.

1. Human-powered – this is the most common in developing and under-developed countries because of several factors like savings on cost, accessibility of location, physical exercise and environmental reasons. Human-powered transport is a sustainable form of transport and has recently been enhanced by the use of machinery and modern technology – e.g. cycling, skating, rowing, skiing which are extremely useful in difficult environments.

2. Animal-powered – whether ridden by humans or used as pack animals for movement of people and commodities, animals can work alone or in teams – e.g. mules, horse-carts, dog-sleds etc.

3. Air – airplanes and aircraft have reduced travel times considerably and is the fastest mode of passenger and goods transport. High costs and high energy use are the downsides of air transport; however, it is estimated that over 500,000 people travel in aero-planes at any given time.

4. Rail – Railroads and rail tracks run the length and breadth of every country in the world ferrying people and goods from place to place. Although they involve the use of large amounts of surface land, rail networks provide easy connectivity options within cities, within countries and between different countries as a mode of public transport- e.g. New York City Subway, London Metro, Eurotunnel or the Chunnel between England and France and the Euro Rail.

5. Road – road networks pass through cities, towns and villages and provide better connectivity options in addition to city rail networks and are ideal for public transport also. Road transport is entirely different from other modes as it allows a vehicle user to have complete freedom over speed, direction, timings of travel and change of location that other transport methods cannot provide. They require large surface areas, use high energy and are quite expensive.

6. Water – water transport includes barges, boats, sailboats and ships through canals, rivers and seas. The earliest boats and ships were routed through inland canals for transporting people and spices. Today large passenger and cargo ships provide an organized and efficient transportation method. Although the time involved is long, water transportation is significantly less expensive than air or road.

Other less used modes include cable and pipeline transports which are specifically purpose oriented – e.g. liquids and gases, water, sewage etc. for pipeline transport and conveyor belts, aerial tramways, cable cars etc. for cable transport.

All transport services involve three common elements – infrastructure such as terminals and facilities, operations that include government and private agencies and vehicles which are specifically made for the purpose